The Centre Pompidou organized a retrospective of the work of Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, better known as LeCorbusier . Visionary architect and urban planner, theorist of modernity-painter and sculptor, too-, Le Corbusier had a great influence in the twentieth century, revolutionizing architectural creation and how to "live".
The Centre Pompidou encourages the public to understand the work of this great figure of modernity through the notion of human proportion. The human body is imposed as a universal principle that defines all aspects of architecture and spatial composition
The design Modulor (1944), a silhouette of a human body of 1.83 m, formalizes a system of proportions based on the golden ratio to organize a harmony defined in terms of human morphology. However, the Modulor which will emerge as a true regulatory system for many architects, to regulate both the shape of the interior and the proportion of construcciones- seems to have been interpreted as a metric instrument as a purely abstract architecture organizes Under a geometric rationality.
This exhibition examines the sources of body design Le Corbusier, a moving body that defines his concept of eurythmy (one of the five keys of architecture, the "pace" the proportion). Try this principle in the late 1910s, under the influence of school Hellerau, a garden city near Dresden where his brother Albert Jeanneret, follow steps composer and teacher Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. The latter proposes -from this important center of artistic-experimental method for learning rhythmic music and choreography through a pedagogy based on physical perception, knowledge of space organized by interactions between space, time and energy movement. These ideas had a great influence on Le Corbusier. While Le Corbusier performed an internship with architect Peter Behrens (1910-1911) in Germany, where he meets Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in 1912 published a study on the movement of decorative arts in Germany and adheres to the premises of the Werkbund (founded in 1907 movement that promotes innovation in the applied arts and architecture) and the movement of garden cities. Their sources are to Lebensreform [life reform], a movement that seeks harmony based on psychophysical theories of Gustav Fechner German philosopher and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. Le Corbusier incorporates in designing a dynamic and aesthetic space, thereafter dominated by rhythm and movement, with the idea of a sensor body. The influence of these concepts will be decisive in his painting and his work through the definition of "scientific aesthetics." The exhibition offers an unprecedented journey through the work of Le Corbusier based on a specific timeline for the major stages of this new aesthetic conception. In it, the body is "perceptual", "cognitive": read studies consistently promoted its painted, sculpted and architectural work.
Criticism usually opposed to Le Corbusier modernist, author of a purist architecture, Le Corbusier postwar marked by concrete brutalism or more organic forms.Instead, the exhibition highlights the continuity of production. It begins with a room dedicated to the definition of rhythm and eurythmy.
Collect the influence of regulating lines of Peter Behrens, JL M Lauweriks and Voyage en Orient Le Corbusier, launched in 1911 to abundant sketchbooks and notes taken during that initial trip were sent throughout his life. The architect then theorizes on perceptual and cognitive unit of an architectural object, to which end symbolizing a bucket. It is the white cube of its first purists drawings and painting entitled The Cheminée (1918). That picture will be the cornerstone of their collaboration with the painter Amédée Ozenfant, who founded the movement "purism" and the magazine L'Esprit nouveau . Studies are reflected, in particular, still lifes organized as variations in terms of regulating lines. In a critical relationship with Cubism, say a psychophysical dimension, the existence of a 'psychophysical parallelism' between soul and body, as advocated by Gustav Fechner. In this magazine, Le Corbusier, which still was Charles-Edouard Jeanneret firm for the first time with his pseudonym. A part of the exhibition is devoted to the magazine and its first buildings, which will become manifest. With Esprit Nouveau pavilion designed for the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in 1925, Le Corbusier particular the establishment of a cognitive space that defines both the pictorial space, the "living" space, harmony of architectural compositions and understanding the urban environment. Article Des yeux qui ne pas voient , Le Corbusier defined the new place of modernity, a society based on machinery, automobile, airplane, boat, where movement and mobility mark a new concept of space -time. The houses (Villa Stein, Villa Savoye ...) are imposed as manifestos of this organized architecture for a body released, intended as a free plane seen the light. During the 1930s, Le Corbusier divide their working hours between painting and architecture, and carries out systematic studies on the body: women's bodies deformed and recomposing new figures reflected morphogenesis of bodies in a set of paintings and sketches that found its culmination in the mural painting Badovici house Vézelay (1936) that the public can see for the first time thanks to this exhibition. The set of prototype parts LC furniture designed by Le Corbusier series is also exposed after his visit to the Weissenhof Siedlung in Stuttgart in 1927. This experimental city is the architectural manifesto of the international modernist movement. Its white buildings, flat roof, were created by Behrens, Gropius, van der Rohe and Le Corbusier. The epicenter of the exhibition is the room dedicated to Modulor, which presents some fifty drawings and objects. Among the drawings for the study of mathematical formalization and describing geometric progressions, the Modulor appears as a regulatory tool than as an abstract rule. The acoustic period begins with Le Corbusier's sketches Ozon (1943), in that an ear that we see in numerous drawings and paintings (Ubu IV) and leads to a series of sculptures by Joseph Savina appears. The concept of sound is directly related to the notion of unspeakable space, a text that Le Corbusier published in a special issue ofL'Architecture d'aujourd'hui . Redirects the idea of a psychophysical space in which all visual, sound, senses táctil- resonate together in a unified harmony of proportions area. The paintings and sculptures are completed with the presentation of the mural painting by Le Corbusier for street workshop Sèvres. The "housing cell" wide body, is imposed on buildings and houses built by Le Corbusier after the visit of cells Galluzzo Charterhouse, near Florence. The systematic use of Modulor for the realization of the Housing Unit of Marseille defines the principle of collective habitat based on a universalist understanding of the scale and functions necessary for humans. Le Corbusier developed this principle to other programs, multiplying prints Modulor using wet seals in numerous drawings, many of which can be seen in the exhibition. Le Corbusier is committed to the realization of a community spiritual space, based on the understanding of unspeakable space. His relationship with Father Couturier takes you interested in sacred art related programs. The notion of a spiritual community founded in physiological constants and shared cultural values, defines the conceptual unity of these projects. The Philips Pavilion, which is both an event and a transfiguration of an expanded acoustic space, is stated as a concrete and accessible to a broad public manifesto. Le Corbusier adds to the rational city planning of large urban spaces, articulated a vision of the city around symbolic buildings. Define this humanistic city Sur les 4 Routes , La Maison des hommes , and publishing in magazines L'Homme réel and L'Homme et l'architecture .Chandigarh is imposed as a concrete demonstration of this universalist worldview. In the early 50s, the Indian authorities will handle the design of the new capital of Punjab. Assumes the entire city planning, builds the first official buildings and private residences done. Le Corbusier wanted to erect a symbol a peace monument, a hand, a body part to replace the dove of peace. The exhibition ends with that was, at once, the most personal and the flagship project of the thought of Le Corbusier: Le Cabanon . In this "housing cell", built on the rocks beachfront in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Le Corbusier designed a minimum living space. This cabin appears as a paradox for an architect who was characterized by the excesses of large urban projects-the intensive communication, a well-orchestrated publicity multiplied without cease spreading her image, but also by the desire to scarcity. In Le Cabanon expressed their will to live in a minimal, minimalist space, based on simple physiology of the body. Le Corbusier live there almost naked, and there near disappear during one of his daily baths in the Mediterranean in 1965.
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